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 Asmah Haji Omar


      Born on March 5, 1940, in Jitra, Kedah, Malaysia, Professor Asmah enjoys a universal reputation as the foremost authority on the indigenous languages of West Malaysia, Sarawak and Sabah. Asmah retired in March 2000 as Professor of Malay Linguistics (since 1976), and Dean of the Faculty of Languages and Linguistics, University of Malaya (since 1995). She spent her entire career, since 1963, at the latter university, where from December 1983 to November 1986, she was Deputy Vice-Chancellor.

     After graduating from Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, in Indonesian Language and Literature (B.A.,1961; M.A.,1963) she obtained her Ph.D. in General Linguistics, in 1969, from London University, and her dissertation was published as The Iban Language of Sarawak: A Grammatical Description. Kuala Lumpur: DBP, 1981. In 1998, she was awarded a D.Litt. degree in Malay Linguistics by the University of Malaya.

     She has served on various high-level governmental committees on language policy matters and has been a recipient of numerous invitations and visiting-professorships to Europe, North America, Japan, Korea, Indonesia, and certain Middle-East countries, notably as a Fulbright Visiting Scholar, British Council and Japan Foundation invitee.     

    She has done research in various fields of Linguistics but mainly in Sociolinguistics and Language Planning, General Linguistics, and Austronesian Historical Linguistics. She has published books and papers in both English and Malay on these topics. Lately she has also been interested in semantics and ethnolinguistics.

    Her 44 book publications include:  An Introduction to Malay Grammar (Co-Author: Rama Subbiah). Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1969; Essays on Malaysian Linguistics. KL: DBP, 1975;  Language Planning for Unity and Efficiency: A Study of the Language Corpus and Status Planning of Malaysia. KL: University of Malaya Press, 1979;  Language and Society in Malaysia. KL: DBP, 1982;  The Malay Peoples of Malaysia and Their Languages. KL:DBP, 1983;  The Linguistic Scenery in Malaysia. KL: DBP, 1992; Concepts of Conflict, War and Peace in the Malay Language. KL: Academy of Malay Studies, University of Malaya, 1998; Encyclopedia of Malaysia, Ed. Volume on Languages and Literatures, NY: Times International (forthcoming). She has published 33 chapters in books and 136 articles in academic journals, besides editing fourteen books and authoring ten school text-books.

   .Her books in Malay include: Morfologi - Sintaksis Bahasa Melayu (Malaya) dan Bahasa Indonesia: Satu Perbandingan. KL: DBP, 1968; Pengarajan Bahasa Malaysia Dalam Konteks Perancangan Bahasa Malaysia. KL: DBP, 1978; Kepelbagaian Fonologi Dialek-Dialek Melayu. KL: DBP, 1978; Aspek Penterjemahan  dan Interpretasi. Ed. KL: University of Malaya Press, 1979, etc.

    Among her numerous awards: the Malaysian title of Datuk (Dato' Setia DiRaja Kedah), in 1983; Avon Tan Sri Fatimah, awarded only to prominent women in Malaysia, in 1995; Chevalier dans l’ordre des Palmes Academiques, a French Ministry of Education award, in 1989; nominated « Woman of the Year 1998 » by the American Biography Institute; « 20th CAA Silver Medal of Honour » awarded by the International Biographical Centre in 1999.  

    Asmah Haji Omar has been the chairperson and/or organiser of far too many national and international conferences to be conveniently listed here. 

Ananda Kentish COOMARASWAMY (1877 - 1947)


     Born on August 22, 1877 in Ceylon, he was the Curator of Indian (and Muhammadan ) Art at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts (where he was later also Fellow) for the last thirty years of his life. He was universally known by his acronym: AKC, in recognition of his encyclopaedic knowledge and his penetrating insights into European and Oriental art, thought, aesthetics, and religion, both ancient and modern, meticulously analysed and interpreted in hundreds of articles, essays, books, catalogues, and reviews. Born to a Ceylonese Tamil father, Sir Mutu Coomaraswamy and an English Catholic mother, a descendant of Queen Victoria’s Lady-in-Waiting, AKC graduated from University College, London, with first class honours in minerology and botany in 1900. By 1903, he was fellow of University College and  the first Director of the Minerological Survey of Ceylon. In 1906, the University of London conferred on AKC the degree of D.Sc. for his official reports on Ceylonese minerology and other scientific papers.

     His publications include: Mediaeval Sinhalese Art. Broad Campden: Essex House Press (Printed by AKC), 1908; The Arts and Crafts of India and Ceylon. London & Edinburgh: T.N.Foulis, 1913; Rajput Paintings, being an account of Rajasthan and the Punjab Himalayas from the XVIth to the XIXth century, 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1916; Introduction to Indian Art. Madras: Theosophical Publishing Hse., 1923;  Christian and Oriental Philosophy of Art (Why Exhibit Works of Art?). New York: Dover Publications, 1956; The Transformation of Nature in Art. NY: Dover Pub., 1956 [Harvard Univ. Press, 1934]; History of Indian and Indonesian Art. NY: Dover pub., 1965 [Karl W.Hiersemann, 1927]; The Dance of Siva: Essays on Indian Art and Culture.NY: Dover Pub., 1985 [London: 1924]; What is Civilization and Other Essays. Great Barrington, MA: Lindisfarne Press, 1989;

Myths of the Hindus and Buddhists (with Sister Nivedita aka Margaret E.Noble). NY: Dover Pub., 1967 [George Harrap, 1913], etc.

      For a full list of his numerous publications, see Rama P. Coomaraswamy, Compiler. Ananda K.Coomaraswamy: Bibliography/Index. Berwick-upon-Tweed: Prologos Books, 1988, x-70p.

      For easy reference of his work and life, see Roger Lipsey, Ed. Coomaraswamy. Vol. 1: Selected Papers: Traditional Art and Symbolism; Vol.2: Selected Papers: Metaphysics; Vol.3: His life and Work. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1977 (Bollingen Series LXXXIX).

      For a concise critique of his life and work, see T.Wignesan, « Ananda K.Coomaraswamy’s Aesthetics: The Rasa Theory and the Hindu Religious Tradition in Art - A Critique » in JIAS, Vol.XIV, 1(Madras), September 1996.





     Dr. Coomaraswamy bestrides the two cultures with such ease that it is almost impossible to encapsulate his biodata in a page. The only surviving son of the philosopher and art historian Ananda K.Coomaraswamy, he is since 1994, after qualifying from New York University College of Medicine in 1959 with a M.D., Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York. In 1961, he qualified as a surgeon, and from then onwards, he specialised first in General Surgery, then in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, rising to become the Chief Resident in each of his specialties. He doubled his role as a surgeon by teaching his subjects as well, mainly as Clinical Assistant Professor of Surgery, 1987-1994. He was/is also attached to various hospitals, in the New York area, in which he enjoys emeritus or honorary status, such as, at the New York Medical College; Stamford Hospital and St.Joseph’s Hospital, Greenwich Hospital in Connecticut; Bronx Municipal Hospital Center; Westchester Square Hospital and St.Barnabas Hospital. Almost at the end of his career as a surgeon, he specialised in Clinical Psychiatry and Neurology. 

     On the other hand, after his select schooling at Wycliffe College (his father’s alma mater) in Gloucestershire, England, he graduated from Harvard University, 1948-51 and 1953-54, majoring in Geology and Paleontology. He spent two years in between, 1951-53, at Calcutta University studying Indian History, Religion and Culture.

     Besides contributing research articles, together with colleagues, in his specialties in various learned journals, such as, the Chicago Year Book of General Surgery, New England Journal of Medicine, Surgical Gynaecology and Obstetrics, he has also published in book collections, such as, Surgical Exposures in Orthopaedics, Ed. by Stanley Hoppenfield and Piet de Boer, N.Y.: J.P.Lippencott Company, 1984; Suicide,Depression in Late Life, Critical Issues in Treatment, Research and Public Policy, Ed. by Gary Kennedy, N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons, 1994.

     In the field of philosophy and comparative religion, he has contributed several articles in Studies in Comparative Religion, The Roman Catholic, The Journal of the Mythic Society, Sophia, etc. He also has a various chapters in books: Vedic Philosophy for Himalayan Eco-System Development, Ed. M.L.Dewan and B.D.Joshi, New Delhi, 1993; The Unanimous Tradition, Ed. Ranjit Fernando, Colombo, 1992; Religion of the Heart, Ed. Seyyed Hossein Nasr and William Stoddart, Washington (?), etc.

      His books include: The Gates of Heaven: Coomaraswamy on Myth, Princeton, 1997; Hinduism and Buddhism by Ananda Coomaraswamy, Ed. with K.Iengar, New Delhi, 1998; The Art of Living, A Collection of Essays by AKC on Art, Ed., Fons Vitae, (in press); Spiritual Authority and Temporal Power by Ananda Coomaraswamy, Ed. with K.Iengar, New Delhi, 1993; Connaissances des religions, Hon.Ed., France.






     Born 1954 in the States. Professor of Political Science and Chairman of the International Affairs Department of the American University of Paris. Also teaches graduate courses at the Regent Campus Paris Programme, Diplomatic Academy of London at the University of Westminster and at the American Graduate School of International Relations and Diplomacy, Paris.

     Professor Gardner majored in English Literature (B.A.) at Colgate University, New York, after having pursued courses in London and at the University of Tours. He then switched to political science, first at the American University’s School of International Service, and obtained his M.A., in May 1982, from John Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, where he also completed, in October 1987, his doctoral degree: Ph.D. (Field: International Relations. Area: Global Theory and History, European Politics and Economy, Soviet Foreign and Domestic Policy. Honors: European History Ph.D. Comprehensive Exam. Language: French).

     From December 1983 to January 1984, he was a researcher with the Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars. Then, from Fall 1988 to Spring 1989, he taught Comparative Politics and Modernization; U.S.Foreign and Domestic Politics as an Adjunct Assistant Professor at The John Hopkins-Nanjing Center for Chinese and American Studies, Nanjing, P.R. of China. He returned to the States and, from Fall 1989 to Spring 1990, served as an Adjunct Assistant Professor, teaching Global Theory and History at The Paul H.Nitze School of Advanced International Studies in Washington, D.C. Since the Fall of 1990, he has been teaching at the American University of Paris.

     Publications include: Dangerous Crossroads: Europe, Russia, and the Future of NATO. Westport, CT, and London: Praeger, 1997; Surviving the Millennium: American Global Strategy, the Collapse of the Soviet Empire and the Question of Peace. Westport, CT, and London: Praeger, 1994.

    Books and journals edited: Central and Southeastern Europe in Transition: Perspectives on Success and Failure since 1989. Westport, CT and London: Praeger Publishers, (Publication forthcoming in 2000). [General Ed. and Contributor]; Nato’s New Strategy and ESDI: European Security in the New Millennium. Maastricht: Cicero Foundation Press, 1999. [Co-editor and Contributor].

    Contributed to several learned journals. Grants: John Hopkins SAIS, 1982-85; Lounsbery Grant, Summer 1993.  






      Born on May 8, 1922 in Tours, France, he distinguished himself as a gifted linguist, especially in Chinese, in his twenties. He was officially nominated as interpreter to the French Delegation at the 1954 peace talks on Indo-China in Geneva.

      Son of Madame née Olga Lvoff and the former Russian Consul in Ceylon Nicolas Rygaloff, who sought political asylum in France in 1922, he has two sons and a daughter.

      Rygaloff soon achieved renown as a sinologist after brilliant graduate studies in Paris realised through coveted State scholarships. Immediately after working productively in the old Sorbonne University’s research laboratory: The Peking Sinological Study Centre (1945-54), he served as Attaché Culturel with the French General Delegation to North Vietnam (1954-55). Then began his brilliant academic career as a Research Fellow with  the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1955-56, where he was also elected as a member of the National Scientific Research Committee (1972-80).

    In 1957, he was appointed to the coveted post of Directeur d’études à l’Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales in Paris, as full-professor in the elite higher studies school. At the same time, he served as professor at the Sorbonne’s Institut des Hautes Etudes Chinoises, 1959-68, and as Associate Professor at the Ecole Nationale des Langues Orientales Vivantes, 1960-70.

     He was founder-director of the Centre de recherches linguistiques sur l’Asie Orientale (Research Centre in Far Eastern Linguistics; formerly named Centre de linguistique chinoise), at the EHESS, 1960-85, and also founder-editor of the famed Cahiers de Linguistique Orientale.

     For a brief period, from 1973 to 1976, he was seconded to a key post as Conseiller culturel  with the French Embassy in Tokyo where he greatly contributed to the opening up of Japanese relations with the French Republic.

     He is a distinguished member of the French Société Asiatique (Asiatic Society) and the Société de Linguistique de Paris (Linguistic Society of Paris).

     Rygaloff’s publications include the first complete Chinese grammar: Grammaire élémentaire du chinois (1973); Confucius (1960) [in the collection: Myths and Religions], and a whole series of long savant articles in leading academic journals, especially on Chinese linguistics.

      He speaks and writes fluently in French, English, Russian, and Chinese, while coping adequately with Japanese and Mongol as well.




WANG Gungwu


     Professor Wang Gungwu, one of the foremost authorities on China, Chinese History, and the Overseas Chinese, is Director of the East Asian Institute at the National University of Singapore; Distinguished Professorial Fellow at the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies; and Emeritus Professor of the Australian National University, Canberra.

     He was born in Surabaya, Indonesia, on October 9, 1930, but grew up in Ipoh, Malaysia, where he was educated at Anderson School.  He studied at The National Central University, Nanjing, China, 1947-48; The University of Malaya, Singapore, 1949-54 (B.A. Hons., M.A.); The University of London, 1954-57 (Ph.D.).

     He taught at The University of Malaya, Singapore, 1957-59, and Kuala Lumpur, 1959-1968, where he was Dean of Arts, 1962-63, and Professor of History, 1963-68.  He then moved to The Australian National University, Canberra as Professor of Far Eastern History, 1968-1986; and has been Emeritus Professor there since 1988.  He was also  Director of the Research School of Pacific Studies, 1975-1980.  From 1986 to 1995, he was Vice-Chancellor of The University of Hong Kong.  He came to Singapore in 1996 to be Chairman of the Institute of East Asian Political Economy; the latter company was incorporated, in 1997, as the East Asian Institute in the NUS.

     His books include The Nanhai Trade: the Early History of Chinese Trade in the South China Sea  (1958 and 2nd edition, 1998);  The Structure of Power in North China during the Five Dynasties  (1963);  China and the World since 1949: The Impact of Independence, Modernity and Revolution (1977);  Community and Nation:  Essays on Southeast Asia and the Chinese (1981); China and the Chinese Overseas  (1991)  The Chineseness of China: Selected Essays  (1991);  Community and Nation: China, Southeast Asia and Australia  (1992); The Chinese Way: China's Position in International Relations  (1995); Nationalism and Confucianism  (1997); China and Southeast Asia: Myths, Threats, and Culture  (1999); The Chinese Overseas: From Earthbound China to the Quest for Autonomy  (2000).

     He also edited or co-edited the following volumes:  Malaysia:  a Survey  (1964); The Cultural Problems of Malaysia in the Context of Southeast Asia  (1968); Essays on the Sources for Chinese History  (1973); Self and Biography:  Essays on the Individual and Society in Asia  (1975); Hong Kong: Dilemmas of Growth  (1980); Society and the Writer: Essays on Literature in Modern Asia  (1981); Changing Identities of Southeast Asian

Chinese since World War II  (1988);  Hong Kong's Transition: A Decade after the Deal  (1995); Global History and Migrations  (1997); Hong Kong in the Asia-Pacific Region: Rising to the New Challenges  (1997); Dynamic Hong Kong: Business and Culture  (1997); China's Political Economy (1998); The Chinese Diaspora: Selected Essays (1998); Hong Kong in China: The Challenges of Transition  (1999); China: Two Decades of Reform and

Change  (1999).

     His books in Chinese are Dongnanya yu Huaren  (1987);  Nanhai Maoyi yu Nanyang Huaren  (1988);  Lishi di  Gongneng  (1990);  Zhongguo yu Haiwai Huaren  (1994); Xianggang shi xinbian  (as editor, two volumes, 1997); Huchi Nanren xuanji  (2000).

     Honours include: Fellow and President of the Australian Academy of the Humanities; Member, Academia Sinica;  Honorary Academy Member, Chinese Academy of Social Science; Foreign Honorary Member, American Academy of Arts and Science; International Academic Prize, Fukuoka Asian Cultural Prizes; Commander of the British Empire.  He has received the following Honorary degrees: D.Litt. (The University of Sydney and The University of Hull); LL.D. (Monash University in Melbourne, The Australian National University, and The University of Melbourne) and D.Univ. (Soka University in Tokyo, and Griffith University in Brisbane).  He is Honorary Fellow of the School of Oriental and African Studies, London;  and Honorary Professors of Hong Kong, Peking and Fudan (Shanghai) Universities.

     Member of Editorial Board or Advisory/Corresponding Editor of the following journals: Pacific Affairs (Vancouver); Journal of Southeast Asian Studies (Singapore); The China Journal (Canberra); The China Quarterly (London); Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy  (London); Contemporary Southeast Asia (Singapore); China Studies (Hong Kong); Asian Culture (Singapore); The Pacific Review (Warwick University); The Round Table (London); Modern Asian Studies (Cambridge); Journal of Malaysian Chinese Studies (Kuala Lumpur); Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia (Singapore).






     Born  22 July 1955, he is, since March 1997, Chair Professor and Director of the Institute for Comparative Literature and Cultural Studies, and Head of the Centre for European Studies at the Beijing Language and Culture University. He holds simultaneously Guest Professorship status at the following universities: Peking, Shandong, Tsinghua, the Nanjing Normal, and is also Guest Research Fellow of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Apart from being the Editor of New Literary History (Chinese edition) and an editorial board member of the Journal of Peking University, he holds responsible posts on various literary and academic boards and associations in China. At the same time, he has also held guest lectureships at most of the major universities in the West and the Far East, such as, Oxford, London, Harvard, Yale, Stanford, Columbia, New York, Toronto, Copenhagen, Stockholm, Vienna, Tokyo, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Western Australia, and so forth. The numerous fellowships and grants further attest to his versatility and international renown.

     He has also organized several international conferences: I C on the Future of Literary Theory: China and the World; I C on the Function of the Media in an Age of Globalization; Reading the Nation: I C on Cultural Identity; I C on Translation and Cross-Cultural Communication; etc.

     He obtained his B.A. degree from the Nanjing Normal University, in 1978, and his Ph.D. in English and Comparative Literature from Peking University in 1989. He began teaching at the Nanjing Normal University (1978-86) and became a Full Professor at Peking University (1986-97).

      His publications include 140 learned articles and essays in academic journals and books, and the following books: 1. Comparative Literature and Cultural Criticism. Beijing: People's Literature Publishing House, 2000; 2. The Influence of Chinese Culture in Europe. Shijiazhuang: Hebei People's Press, 1999. Co-authors: Qian Linsen and Ma Shude; 3. After Postmodernism. Beijing: Chinese Literature Press, 1998; 4. Comparative Literature and the Interpretation of Chinese Literature. Taipei: Shuxin Press, 1996; 5. An Age of Plurality and Co-existence: Comparative Studies of 20th Century Western Literature. Beijing: Peking University Press, 1993; Taipei: Shuxin Press, 1995; 6. Comparative Literature and Contemporary Chinese Literature. Yunnan Education Press, 1992; 7. Depth Psychology and Literary Criticism. Xi'an: Shanxi People's Press, 1992; 8. Western Trends of Literary Thought and 20th Century Chinese Literature.  Beijing: China Social Sciences Publishing House, 1990.  Co-author: Yue Daiyun.

9. An Interdisciplinary Study of Comparative Literature.  Beijing: China Social Sciences P, 1989.  Co-author: Yue Daiyun.

      Edited Books (Chinese, English*): 1. Ibsen and Modernity: West and China. Tianjin: Baihua Literature and Art Press, 2000; 2. Guide to Canonical Works of Modern Western Literature (3 vols.). Tianjin: Tianjin People's Press, 2000; 3. Globalization and Postcolonial Criticism. Co-ed. Beijing: Central Compilation and Translation Press, 1998; 4. Northrop Frye Studies: China and West. Co-ed. Beijing: China Social Sciences Publishing House, 1996; 5. A History of 20th Century Euro-American Literature (4 vols.). Co-ed. Beijing: Peking University Press, 1995-97; 1999; 6. Psychoanalytic Criticism.  Chengdu: Sichuan Literature and Arts Press, 1989.

7. Nobel Prize Winners on Literary Creation.  Peking University Press, 1987; *8. Chinese Translation Studies, a special issue in Perspectives: Studies in Translatology. Co-ed. 4. 1 (1996), Copenhagen

    Translated Books: 1. International Postmodernism: Theory and Literary Practice. Hans Bertens et al. Beijing: China Social Sciences Publishing House, 2000; 2. Post-revolutionary Aura: the Dirlik Reader. Beijing: China Social Sciences Publishing House, 1999; 3. Approaching Postmodernism.  D.W. Fokkema et al.  Peking University Press, 1991; Taipei: Shuxin Press, 1992; 4. Freudianism and the Literary Mind.  F. J. Hoffman. Beijing:  Sanlian Press, 1987; 5. Tender Is the Night.  S. Fitzgerald.  Xi'an: Shaanxi People's P, 1987; Beijing: China Joint Publishing Corporation of Literature and Art, 1996; Jinan: Shandong Literature and Art Press, 1999; 6. A History of Western Art.  M. Levy.  Nanjing: Jiangsu Publishing House of Fine Arts, 1987. (* Written and Published in English.)






      Born in Kuala Krai, Malaysia. Up to his twenty-first year grew up in Singapore, Port Swettenham, Klang, Sungei Rengam, Kuala Lumpur, Madras and Seremban; then in London, Heidelberg, West Berlin, Madrid and Paris. Served as Research Fellow with the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), from 1973 to 1998. Lectured for the Commonwealth Institute, London, on South and Southeast Asia and taught courses in English, American, and Commonwealth literatures at the European Division of the University of Maryland and at the Sorbonne.

       Was a journalist with the Malay Mail & Malayan Times (Kuala Lumpur), and the Straits Times Press Group of Singapore (London Correspondent).

       Education: He had four years of schooling at Batu Road School and the Victoria Institution in Kuala Lumpur. Inns of Court School of Law, London; Universities of Heidelberg and West Berlin (philosophy); Hispanic Studies in Madrid: Universidad Complutense, and Instituto de la Cultura Hispanica, and at the Université de Paris-VIII (Maitrise d’Enseignement d’Espagnol); obtained his higher doctoral degree [D.Litt.] in aesthetics from the Université de Paris-I-Panthéon-Sorbonne (Doctorat d’Etat ès lettres et sciences humaines). Distinctions in both the master’s and doctoral degrees. Won the Extraordinary Prize in Hispanic Studies at Madrid University.

       Publications include: Tracks of a Tramp: A first collection of poems. (1961); Bunga Emas: An Anthology of Contemporary Malaysian Literature: 1930-63. Ed. (1964); Etude comparée des littératures nationales et/ou officielles de la Malaisie et de Singapour depuis 1940, 3 vols. (1988); Fire Readings: A Collection of Writings from the Shakespeare & Company Fire Benefit Readings, Co-ed. (1991); Journal of Comparative Poietics/Revue de Poïétique Comparée (Founder editor:1989-). Contributed over a hundred articles and/or fictional pieces to a wide variety of popular and learned journals, and books, such as, The Journal of Commonwealth Literature (Leeds University), Asia:A Handbook (London), The Journal of the Institute of Asian Studies (Institute of Asian Studies, Chennai, India), Buddhism in Tamil Nadu (IAS, India), International Institute of Asian Studies Newsletter (Leiden), Journal of Asian Studies (USA), Komparatistische Hefte (Bayreuth University), Yearbook of ASNLE (Essen University), Journal of Eelam Studies (London), Lanka: Studies in Lankan Culture (Uppsala University), Radical Poetics (London), Forum Academicum (Heidelberg University), Discus (Frankfurt University), Fire Readings (Paris-Boston), The Gombak Review (IIUM University, Kuala Lumpur), Malayan Times(Kuala Lumpur), Le Canard Laqué (Institute of Political Science, Paris), http://www.viweb.tsx.org/ (Victoria Institution literary archives), and so forth. Check the Bibliothèque Nationale de France for other works.

         Editorial board member of Le Canard Laqué ( Association Asie-Extrême, Institute of Political Science, Paris: 1989-91); editorial advisor and guest editor of the Journal of the Institute of Asian Studies (Chennai, India: 1998- ), and Guidepost (Spain: 1967).       

        Languages: Tamil (mother tongue), Malay, English, Spanish, German, French, and some Chinese.

        A Stateless Person since 1969. Cf. Marquis’ Who’s Who in the World; Who’s Who in EACLALS (European Association for Commonwealth Literature and Language Studies) 1995; and CD ROM Best-Europe.








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